Название: State-of-the-Art of Millimeter-Wave Silicon Technology Автор: Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha Издательство: Springer Год: 2022 Страниц: 165 Язык: английский Формат: pdf (true), epub Размер: 14.0 MB
This book examines the critical differences between current and next-generation Si technologies (CMOS, BiCMOS and SiC) and technology platforms (e.g. system-on-chip) in mm-wave wireless applications. We provide a basic overview of the two technologies from a technical standpoint, followed by a review of the state-of-the-art of several key building blocks in wireless systems. The influences of system requirements on the choice of semiconductor technology are vital to understanding the merits of CMOS and BiCMOS devices – e.g., output power, battery life, adjacent channel interference, cost restrictions, and so forth. These requirements, in turn, affect component-level design and performance metrics of oscillators, mixers, power and low-noise amplifiers, as well as phase-locked loops and data converters. Finally, the book offers a peek into the next generation of wireless technologies such as THz -band systems and future 6G applications.
The exponential increase in the capabilities of digital circuits warrants continuous improvements from semiconductor companies to push technology boundaries to stay competitive. Moreover, with the advent of system-on-chip (SoC) solutions, the ability to integrate RF and digital circuitry on the same die has become a reality and a desirable solution in many applications. This is where SiGe BiCMOS and CMOS present a sizeable advantage over III-IV technologies. First, with access to bipolar and CMOS transistors in BiCMOS processes, designers can leverage good RF performance alongside complex digital circuits. Second, the RF performance of bulk CMOS and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technologies has improved dramatically, providing another viable alternative to III-IV devices.
Silicon offers several advantageous properties to semiconductor fabrication, leading to its dominance on the IC market. Growing high-quality dielectrics on silicon is relatively painless. The fact that silicon wafers can be grown in large single-crystal structures with close to no defects means that many low-cost ICs can be fabricated on a single wafer. Silicon possesses excellent thermal properties, improving heat handling of dense circuits operating in extreme environments. Moreover, it can handle high mechanical stresses, which eases fabrication, transportation and handling. Controlled doping of n and p-type impurities is possible with high dynamic range, and low-resistance ohmic contacts help reduce parasitics. These properties, alongside a worldwide abundance of silicon, make it extremely attractive from a manufacturing perspective.
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